Brief History of Somalia

It is incredible, if l inform you this  proclamation, that Somalia tribes are not actuality, the way established, and arranging know, were as their olden times are very elongated, and the fathers that they originated from are very short occasion, my deem is Somali tribe are alliance, while brothers are perhaps, and save way for the side of wealthy keeping, and land demarcations, for examples, the previous  history life-size tribes was dominated to the undersized tribes, and took their camels and land,  that is rationale of small tribes to unite the big clans, thus  finally turn into their brothers. I have a lot of details & findings, but we shall split another special case will concern these area, l hope the best, let me say some thin about their written history. The land of the Somali people, much   of it arid and inhospitable, has for thousands of years been close to civilization and international trade. To the north, just across the Gulf of Aden, is Saba, the land of the legendary Queen of Sheba and the earliest part of Arabia to prosper. To the west is Ethiopia, where the kingdom of Askum is established by the 5th century BC.    

 In the event the year 1960 brings independence to both the British and Italian colonies, in June and July respectively. They decide to merge as the Somali Republic, more usually known as Somalia. The French colony has to wait until 1977 before becoming independent as Djibouti.
From the start a major political theme in independent Somalia is the need to reunite with three large Somali groups trapped in other states – in French Somalia, in Ethiopia (the annexed Ogaden and Haud regions) and in northern Kenya. 

Failure to make any progress on this issue is largely due to western support for Ethiopia and Kenya, which causes Somalia to look to the Soviet Union for military aid. Nevertheless the Somali government manages to maintain a fairly neutral stance in international affairs during the 1960s – a position which changes dramatically after 1969. 

The winning party in the first elections of the new republic is the SYL or Somali Youth League, formed originally to campaign for independence within British Somaliland. Elections in March 1969 bring the party a larger majority. It is becoming increasingly authoritarian in its rule until – in October of this same year – a policeman assassinates the president, Muhammad Egal.
A few days later, in a mounting political crisis, the commander of the army, Mohamed Siad Barre, seizes power, and he becomes the new president of Somalia.

After the collapsed of Somali Government

In the result of this disaster guerrilla groups, clan-based and local, are formed in and around Somalia with the intention of toppling Siad’s repressive and centralizing the Ziyad, Barreh. By 1988 the result is full-scale civil war, resulting in the overthrow of Siad in 1991.

The conflict destroys Somalia’s crops during 1992 and brings widespread famine. Food flown in by international agencies is looted by the warring militias. By December 1992 the situation is such that the UN actively intervenes, sending a force of 35,000 troops in Operation Restore Hope.
The UN briefly calms the situation, persuading fifteen warring groups to convene in Addis Ababa in January 1993 for peace and disarmament talks. These seem at first to make progress, but the situation on the ground continues to deteriorate. In March 1994 American and European units in the UN force withdraw, finding the level of casualties unacceptable. Troops from African countries and the Indian subcontinent remain in situ.

During the rest of the decade the situation gets worse rather than better. From late 1994 the capital, Mogadishu, is divided between the two most powerful of the warring factions. In each a leader declares he the president of the nation and organizes a supposedly national government. In March 1995 the remaining UN forces are evacuated from the coast under the protection of an international flotilla.

After the collapse the central government of Somalia, it faced a lot disaster between the Somalia societies and impacted of the neighboring countries, was as the citizens lost for their identity and spread the world, for the sake of saving, and survivors. Most of the movements filed, for their vision and mission to accepted for their goals, while the SNM declining independent of new state, after 30 years.

SNM, announced the last declaration after captured the tree regions, and watched what is going on the Somalia and the coming future, they took and do for the latest years, self-appointment government and still the world not recognized, who have not yet, expectation for the International society and hegemony powers, they respect for the last time the national asset, they will continue remaining days of their life.

Other hand there is a lot of states cracked in Somalia, after the cave in the central government in Somalia, like the Punt land, Galmudug, and new insights.

Somali faced a king organized cases during the warlords , started  after the Somalia filed and tribes treated together, faced more mortality and desolate of the life, Somalia have not yet well institutional building and dependence from the world, thus steel they are under the international keeping and recognitions targets .

Somalia New Foreign policy:

According to the rules and pillars of Somalia foreign policy, not fully  systematic way and fallows similar to standards in the world, we know every country have national interest,  and keep  continue for the aims of national assets  and deeply tooted what is the expectations , this is the one of the major disaster of Somalia foreign policy. novel era of Somali strategy are pending to the most horrible satiations, that give the humankind new signal and require more cautiously for the supporting of Somalia new army system, which is more than their needs, tribe arming, another un-relevant, so that there is new cooperation of outskirts tribes, towards the new hostility, like the talks. 

Somali country depends on the international community. Fallow up the international rules and regulation, while they add very nature points in the world, and realization of the bridging the De-factious and De-juries.

Somalia  needs the  institutional building, Islamic country whom well building and develop human resource and out-sourcing for the pillars of governments to care about Somalia, while the world  reached most  of other bounders, and gifted them self’s to practices political participation .

One of the most problems faced Somalia is luck of foreign policy strategic and formulation of new way according the new tap and talks between the Somalia other far states and entities.

Most of the stake holders of Somalia foreign policy was not clear that, they were participated and did whole their suggestions was acceptable, otherwise this can be  wise case study in different sides

The enduring hostility between the Somalia and other states in the world is not an exceptional case in modern Somali diplomatic history. Contrary to other great neighboring countries in the 20th century, such as Ethiopia & Kenya, it seems to take the Somalia States much longer time to formally accept some of the more undesirable outcomes of history. In fact, during 20th century, the Somalia became involved in several bilateral relations characterized by protracted antagonism short of war. The Somalia was the last major disaster to establish diplomatic relations with the international community. The Somalia. I-Governments refused for 22 years to recognize the Somalia peace building from the international community on the grounds that the world lord routinely violated accepted norms of international behavior. The Somalia only very reluctantly came to terms with the de facto realities of the international supports, but knows whole things are very rational end different after the crisis reach the world

Somalia is  new theory,(constant failure theory) the only  governments have international recognition with luck of internal credit, that means still the Somali government have national inters keeping, but most of the leaders are direct from the international community,  the question is it suitable of local context, difference of the Somali former  leaders and  the newly elected president Hassan are the only is the applicability  of the time, so we need to  confide what is going on the world and internal realization .

Somalia have had belongings, access to control, keep policy formulation and do still observance their security, so that means Somali needed first to build the decision making institutions and, show national inters for the sake, of earnings Somalia is not still mature, not yet fully doing the plan to survive their capacity, firstly Somalia filed for the sake of luck respect national interest with showing power to the international community

Somalia Society selected to keep the relation of the international keeping again the international interest but the question is Somalia; is it possible to reach whole the Somalia with a troops, and international support.

One of the important things are the  Somali governments attract to the Somali society,  is new era of peace keeping and journeys of the world in largest way and keep the Somali relations. The purpose Somalia Foreign Policy is to secure the national interest in dealings with foreign nations, regional organizations and international bodies. This has been done through its three long-established pillars, namely: 1) promoting national security; 2) enhancing economic diplomacy; and 3) protecting the rights and welfare of Somalia overseas. In terms of a practical work program, this must mean advancing under these three pillars the national development and good government objectives of the administration of President.

Somalia program will follow from an assessment, where the country stands today the lowest consultative programs. What corresponding actions and must take in foreign affairs such as: What is the current international environment that Somalia must confront? What is the best way to engage in order to obtain the greatest advantages for the country and the people? How the sociality does mobilize international cooperation overseas to promote our primordial goal of nation-building at home?

The road maps of the talks another reconciliations in Somalia people,  did formally and started  before one year, were as the debate was very sensitive, l was at that time  Hargeisa, whole the people were looking the even protocol , that means Somaliland peoples respected the success for their vision and auxiliary thing form their initial points.

The Somalia government expecting to fallow their strategic plan and development of their countries, while Somalia Society seeking the unity of Somalia, one of the most things which can be seems very difficult and need more effort, are the way of sharing same resource, the government of Somalia selected the on tribe road map, there is two thing witch Somalia will table

The front of the mediators, and the establishments of the conferences 

1.      When the  Somalia search again the reconsolidations of the tribes in Somalia and be part the conferences, that means it is depend-on the way accept other countries whom believes, they are not  fraction of Somalia like the Djibouti, and others,  are the motors of the conflicts

2.      Somalia searches and requested the rebuild the offices, and develop the resource areas well building the tribe system and develops with connected for the world society, without recognition most from too local populations.

Somalia has no capacity for their internal satiations and security, at the same time, access to keep their role.

This small country in horn Africa is city with middle of seas, needs the realization of national keeping, and waiting the international community, running very hard, that means there is solutions but Mr., president there is a lot hostility in Somalia be care full to look back what is happened a year’s pasted, every tribe have interest, but your interest is to success (good governance).  Upholding in tribe system, It was very tiny things and bad culture

The Actors of the Somalia foreign policy 

Every country in the world determine their foreign policy a lot institutions who seems are applicable, then doing national interest and keep facts of their ground, but the actors are very important.

Somalia are not different the international standards, and the developed structure in the world, which is standard. But there is no well institutions can work functional con convince the structure of the international relations, in order to check the coming are the actors of foreign policy

1.      Ministry of forging policy: this is the bridge and the only actor which leads the international relations and keeps the strategic of foreign policy, most of them they do and implement realization of foreign policy.

2.      Intelligence institution: this sector most the time,  they do collect the data and gathering information in different sectors and collaborate , to analysis what is going g the national interest not only the security but they do anticipate  the coming factors, natural disasters, covert, and overt, predictions. While Somalia are still walking not running.

3.      Parliament committee: every country must be establish and specific committee, concerning and busy the actions of external environment, this committee are the art of decision making and improved the tactics of foreign policy while the most look the errors and facilitating the national inters, on behalf of their representatives

4.      Very wise groups: this is groups are the inters group, like the private sectors, because of foreign policy mostly reaches and impact the economic growth and diplomats, non-state actors like the civil society, as the international bodies be a  part of foreign policy theories

5.       Diplomatic engagements : political missions in foreign countries, diplomatic persons  are the wheels can bus and compress the ham some foreign and cam make the best regardless of your country in good conduct and newly relations, but the Somalia still zero truck of diplomat relations.

6.      Finally the head of state; president have the last decision and the monitor of foreign policy. He watches and build the formations of the foreign policy toward the external in terms of political, economical and military, while he charged the errors and other vital of the game gaining.


Somalia & New States (seems adversity   relations)  

 One of the most catastrophic will face the new government are the creating a lot of states with the hand of the  governments institutions, because Somalia have no a legs to condense many states but it is easy to the society to rise up and construct their states, in order to that let me to define what is the federal. Definitions of federal Pertaining to or of the nature of a union of states under a centre government distinct from the individual governments of the separate states, as in federal government; federal system.

The two elected president in Jubba-Land are the images shows the scarcity of peace management and tribe classifications directing Somali government, while the leaders of small states visited to the neighboring countries , without pass through  the Somali government, over again it is new disorder of Somali foreign policy. Mechanism of new Somali mission in Mogadishu, from the UN assistance in to Somalia could care and take a alert step to the Somali mission, otherwise your hands will lead the new blood in Somalia society thus the this vibrant culture and against traditional that  you mentioned, needs more care about that, not only a words, but read and ride the car of road map in Somalia otherwise Somalia will acting  to the same satiations March 1994 American and European units in the UN force withdraw, finding the level of casualties unacceptable . The conflict between  other federal entities like the news system of jubba-land can be divert the new tribe system and classification among the government, while the Somali governments still building the national entities and well recognize the world it means the hope restoration of Somalia going on the romantic areas, but Somalia must carefully the coming steps and fallow up

1.      Somalia must focus on the institutional building and evolve

2.      Well connection al the enemy of Somalia and turn from the hostility to the peace

3.      Make and build the relations for the world with bases the historical background

4.      Somalia must respect the culture, slam system for the sake of the our society

5.      The new leaders of Somalia must be away the tribe system

6.      Recreation of the leader for their former bad input to the good output.

 I am not looking for an alternative; you can’t find the solution of a problem

In the solution of another problem rose at another moment by other people.

You see, what I want to do is not the history of solutions, and that’s the reason

Why I don’t accept the word alternative. My point is not that everything is

Bad, but that everything is dangerous, then we always have something to do. So that there is al lot of states in Somalia subsist as rank of states, like the Shebelle state, the governments was not talk about that, yet l cant understanding the reason, others are less than the stats, it means un constitutional, for Example (Galmudug state) it is remarkable, that the new state of jubba-Land, should be respect the new constitutions of Somalia, but the government are favor to look in healthy eyes! While every Somali are the anther rules and regulations, there for, the Somalia privileged are enough to him for the impartiality leading.   

Somalia know fallows the flat mode in the first airplanes of peace, while the leaders do not have still the good and suitable roads to drive an new car, rose up hope of local people, I am sure the Diaspora and other watchers from the world now seems well anticipation, the local context are not defends the road map, it is kind of feeling that they resourced what they are surveillance. They need new construct, fall down from the peace airplanes to the cross roads and turn from the airplane to a car.

What are the big Goals expecting as of Somalia New Government (the leaders)?

Many Somalis are believes that the country going on a lot of contradictions goals, while the most are believes  the tribe interest can easy rear, and other immersive sources, but it is different, let  them to check the best pillars that the Somalia native society waiting , are the following:

·         Well-functioning government

·         Sound business environment

·         Equitable distribution of resources

·         Acceptance of the rights of others

·         Good relations with neighbors

·         Free flow of information

·         High levels of education

·         Low levels of corruption

After four years this is the indictors whole the Somali society will measure for this and conduct what you was done Mr. President.


  The national constitutions lays out the    basic way in which the government is to operate it was passed on June 23, 2012, after several days of deliberation between Somali federal and regional politicians. To come into effect, the constitution must be ratified by the new parliament. Under the new constitution, Somalia, now officially known as the Federal    Republic of Somalia, is a federation.

Who Is The Owner Of Somalia?

The youth, women’s and big segments of Somalia’s society (not tribes) are looking what is going on the world and the case of Somalia, were as they expecting for their national interest whom they decided before 40 years ago, most of the leadership was announced and give highly level of the society Expectation and meaning of the Somalia society are the independent form the colonial and past bad leaderships.

The hope of the Somalia population are deeply growing before years for the sake of in quest of  maturity and pace development, after a years and talks starts most of them they become very density.

According to the Somali society one of the greets and major problems faces in the last century was luck of leadership. That is not means the future will b e continue like that.


In conclusion

Somali people are extremely grown-up, while this argument most of the community in this global can be seems against the talks are similar that. Because the thousands of years that Somali society lives in this world have not had about big chart of conflicts, except for the last twenty years, and the reason can go different sides, not only the Somali society but the world was a part of it.

One of deepest things in Somali society impacted was the tribe system, and the satiation still running the same way awhile there is a small criticism that earnings it is hidden, we cannot say, that the government directed tribe conclusion and they sharing with awful background.

Leaders, society, businessmen, and other stake holders Somalia needs cooperation from the roots, and crash whole the sociality, but not the international community only, alliances of tribes, and disarmed of specific tribes, that is the new misleading for these weak Somali people again, it is the time to build Somali Governments, have same equity and equality, not only Somalia tribes but this I favor table whole the world. If Somali continue know the first-rate way, it is hope of restorations, and build the Somali of new renewable flag, with a   common government.

It is warning and alert that Somalia go back the new era of war, will reach again the lowest and baldest richest of poor, the new hope of Somalia cant seems easy, while this is the best opportunity in Somali population, and holy occasion, be concerned, Somalia not needs any classifications, play them again new games.! We trust that you realized these feeble populations; it is black era, that we can see and watched it. So, was remarkable & labeled  to the Somali leaders, not only the king maker, from the after colonial and the end of death,  the foot of destruction  are  the  open door, and possible any time to occur, can be operable unforgettable, not only the government, thus whole Somali cream of the crop.

Mr., President, the attentions of tribes are the toxin effects in your vision, and it is the possessions of the past, blacked the Somalia society. Attentive the Somali tribes cant dominates together, this is the things again misinform the earlier Somali governments.

Your government’s needs and fine to you, recognitions from the local context, not the international community simply, that you should act in justice way, recognize every segment, and keep same equality, forget about your tribes hostility to other tribes, and chasing the damnations, in concision of the success and other bad historical actions I hope so, we are not expecting you.

Make sure the foots you are fallowing are the belongings did Sharif’s Government, so it is very important to counsel with him, I am definite the road of your won from him, things you are doing are what he prepared, and inherent from that activity they done, thanks to him, he was not busty the Tribe invites, but he was build Somali alliances.

Somalia needs to erect the assets, and makes it very secure, free from corruptions, the aims contain to look very far regions before to get the near one, maybe it is certain issues, glad to see gradually intensification the government and systematic way. Thousands of Somali citizens, whom ready and offerings, are looking for you.

The end, Somalia needs, professionalization   of military, security, economic empowerment with making the source institutions, and the coordination maps of the government, by means of the running same distance the consultations of the rich mended people.

The thing seems very observant signals.On the one hand, Somalia there is the growing interest in popular culture and its international dimension.



Hassan Abdi Shire


  1. It looks somalilandpress it is not Media online, all their articles 70% are opinion not news. why?

  2. who the hell dared to publish that misleading map on this website. Somaliland republic map begins along the colonial border area with Dijbuti, the failed state of Somalia, and Ethiopia. Long live the patriotic people of Somaliland. Death to all our enemies.

  3. Lol thats the real map of Somaliland an Isaaq state hehe Every clan should live in their territory and No clan can expand to another clan territory.

    Therefore we are appealing to the inhabitants of the three Isaaq cities of Burco, Berbera and Hargeisa not to reignite a civil war in this part of Somalia.

  4. This article is misleading the real history of Somalia and Somaliland. The Gentleman his ideals are locked into clanism it is very much annoying for such a young and a learned person, l just do not understand where is Somalia heading it is really heartening God Bless Somalia and Somalis.

  5. oh my god this is the worst english writing i have even witnessed. my god. he should let proof read someone before publishing. embarrassing

  6. Miskiin, he might be wrong but give him credit for showing interest in his Somalis ppl. Majority of young people growing up outside the country are ashamed to admit to their friends their somali background.these young people unfortunately have known or seen nothing good about their parent country.

  7. Ahh the Darood delusion. You can sit there and create delusional maps on photoshop to your hearts content. The rest of us will live in reality.

  8. Good article talking is reality, i think this article tangible actually in the inside of somlia.

    • Agree with MO SULIEMAN THAT Mr Share Article was the only acceptable view in the inside Somalia.Great Shire you are the asset of Somalia. THANK YOU VERY MUCH INDEED.